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  • #3553

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    Hi A-level/H2/JC Physics Tuition students

    Quantum Physics – Definitions

    1. Photoelectric Effect
    Photoelectric effect is the phenomenon whereby electrons are emitted from surface of a material when electromagnetic radiation is incident on it. (Such electrons are called photoelectrons)

    2. Threshold Frequency
    The Threshold Frequency (f0) is the minimum frequency of the incident radiation that will eject photoelectrons from the surface of the metal.

    3. Work Function Energy
    The minimum energy required for an electron to escape from the surface of the metal.

    4. Stopping Potential
    The mininium potential difference between the cathode and the anode that will prevent any photoelectrons emitted from the cathode from reaching the anode.

    5. Emission Line Spectrum
    When electrons within a large number of atoms of an element de-excite, the set of energy changes is unique to that element, so the atoms emit photons at distinctive wavelengths. The result is an emission line spectrum that is characteristic to the atoms of the element.

    6. Absorption Line Spectrum
    When white light passing through gas atoms at low pressure is analysed, it shows dark lines that correspond to the wavelengths of light absorbed by the gas atoms. (For this to happen, the gas must be colder than the source of radiation.) This spectrum is called absorption line spectrum.

    7. X-ray Spectrum
    A broad continuous spectrum superimposed by peaks of sharply defined wavelengths; these peaks form the characteristic x-ray spectrum): The Continuous Spectrum is formed as a result of the electrons undergoing a single collision or multiple collisions with the target atoms. The loss in energy after each collision will result in the emission of an X-ray photon. The Characteristic X-ray Spectrum is formed as a result a deep-lying electron of the target atoms being knocked out by incident electron and another electron from a higher energy shell above it jumps down to fill the vacancy. Photons are emitted during this de-excitation which form the characteristic peaks.

    8. Square of the amplitude of the wave function Ψ
    A particle can be described by a wave function Ψ where the square of the amplitude of wave function IΨI2 gives a measure of the probability of finding the particle at a point.

    9. Transmission Coefficient
    The transmission coefficient T is the probability that a particle with energy lower than the energy of the potential barrier is transmitted through the barrier, i.e. tunnelling occurs.

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    #3591

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    Nuclear Physics – Definitions

    1. Nucleon
    The name given to either a neutron or a proton.

    2. Nucleon Number
    Total no. of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

    3. Proton Number
    No. of protons in the nucleus of an atom

    4. Atomic mass units
    One atomic mass unit is one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon that has six neutrons, six protons and six electrons, ie an atom of carbon-12.

    5. Avogadro‟s Constant
    The number of atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. It is the number of atoms in one mole of any substance. It has the value of 6.02 x 10^23

    6. Mass Defect
    The difference between the total mass of all the separate nucleons (protons and neutrons) and the actual mass of the nucleus itself.

    7. Binding Energy
    Binding Energy of a nucleus is the minimum amount of energy needed to separate to infinity all the nucleons within the nucleus.

    8.Nuclide
    A nuclide is a collection of atoms as characterized by their nucleon and proton number.

    9.Isotopes
    Isotopes are different forms of the same element which have the same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.

    10. Nuclear Fission
    Nuclear fission refers to the splitting of a massive nucleus into two lighter nuclei of approximately equal mass, with the emission of a few neutrons and accompanied by conversion of part of the mass into energy.

    11. Nuclear Fusion
    Nuclear fusion refers to the combination of lighter nuclides to form heavier, more stable nuclei, releasing energy in the process.

    12. Radioactive decay
    A process whereby an unstable „parent‟ nucleus undergoes spontaneous disintegration (to form a stable „daughter‟ nucleus or stable „daughter‟ nuclei) is called radioactive or nuclear decay. In the process of disintegration, a nucleus emits a particle (alpha or beta particle) and/ or a photon (gamma radiation).

    13. Random
    It is impossible to say exactly which particular nucleus in a sample is going to decay next and each nucleus in the sample has the same probability (chance) of decay per unit time.

    14. Spontaneous
    Spontaneous means that it is not affected by chemical reactions , external factors such as temperature and pressure or the presence of other nuclei.

    15. Half life
    Half life is the mean time taken for the number of undecayed radioactive nuclei in a sample to halve.

    16. Activity
    The activity of a radioactive material is the rate of disintegrations of nuclei.

    17. Decay constant
    Decay constant gives the probability of decay per unit time.

    18. Count Rate
    Count rate refers to the amount of radiations detected per unit time

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    #3639

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    Lasers and Semiconductors – Key points

    Basic principles of lasers

    1. LASER is Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

    2. Spontaneous emission is a phenomenon where a photon is spontaneously emitted from an excited atom without any external stimulation or inducement.

    3. Stimulated emission is a phenomenon where a photon causes another photon of the same frequency to be emitted from an excited atom.

    4. Population inversion in a system refers to the situation when the system has more atoms in the excited state than in the ground state.

    Energy bands, conductors and insulators

    1. Conduction band is the lowest of the energy band of a solid that is unoccupied.

    2. Valence band is the highest occupied energy band of a solid.

    3. Band gap refers to the energy difference between two allowed energy bands.

    OR
    the minimum energy needed for an electron to “jump” from the lower band to the higher band

    4. A conductor is a solid whose conduction band and valence band overlap.

    5. An insulator is a solid with a large band gap between its conduction band and valence band.

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    #3662

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    Hi A-level/H2/JC Physics Tuition students

    A Level Physics – Final Lap
    Date Day Time Remark
    2-Nov Sat 7.30pm to 9.30pm Planning
    9-Nov Sat 7.30pm to 9.30pm P2 Preparation
    16-Nov Sat 7.30pm to 9.30pm P3 Preparation
    23-Nov Sat 7.30pm to 9.30pm P1 Preparation
    26-Nov Tue 10am to 12pm P1 Preparation

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    #3710

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    Hi A-level/H2/JC Physics Tuition students

    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 1: Measurement

    1. Explain what is meant by derived unit.
    A unit expressed as a product and/or quotient of base units.

    2. State two ways an equation is dimensionally consistent but physically incorrect.

    3. The units of moment when expressed in terms of base units are the same as that of energy. Explain why it would be inappropriate to express moment in joules.

    4. A student uses a pair of vernier callipers to measure the diameter of a rubber belt. However, he applies different pressures when closing the gap of the vernier callipers to measure it.
    State and explain whether this mistake introduces systematic error or random error into the readings

    5. Distinguish between a systematic error and a random error in the measurement of a physical quantity. How can they be eliminated or reduced?

    6. Distinguish between precision and accuracy.

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    #3726

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 2: Kinematics

    1. Define displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration. [4]

    2. Derive the 3 kinematics equations which represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line. [3]

    3. State the conditions that must be satisfed for the kinematics equations to be valid. [2]

    4. State the feature of a velocity-time graph that enables acceleration to be determined. [1]

    5. Explain why, for all real vertical throws, the time taken to reach maximum height must be shorter than the time taken to return to the starting point. [2]

    6. Explain why the acceleration has the value g only at this particular time. [2]

    7. Explain why a body falling through air reaches a terminal velocity. [2]

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    #3751

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 3: Dynamics

    1. A toy rocket of is fired vertically into the air. Its mass decreases at a constant rate as the fuel burns and is ejected out as exhaust gas. The rocket rises to a height such that, during the flight, the gravitational field strength of the Earth may be considered to have the constant value of 9.81 N kg−1. Use appropriate physics law(s) to explain how the toy
    rocket works. [2]

    2. In qualitative terms, what can be stated about the subsequent motion as a result of knowing that
    (i) the collision is elastic [1]
    (ii) the collision is head-on [1]

    3. An astronaut in a spacecraft orbiting the Earth may be described as weightless. Explain why this is so. [2]

    4. A stone is dropped from a point a few metres above the Earth’s surface. Considering the system of the stone and the Earth, discuss briefly how the principle of conservation of momentum applies before the impact of the stone with the Earth. [2]

    5. When a man falls from a height and undergoes free fall, his momentum increases.
    Explain if principle of conservation of momentum is violated. [2]

    6 Two strong magnets are held stationary with the north pole of one pushed against the north pole of the other. On letting go, the magnets spring apart. It is apparent that the kinetic energy of the magnets has increased. Explain how the law of conservation of momentum and law of conservation of energy apply in this case. [2]

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    #3773

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 4: Forces

    1. For the car, motion is impossible without friction. Discuss what is meant by friction and the direction in which it acts on the car. In your answer, suggest another example where friction is useful.[3]

    2. Drag is sometimes referred to as fluid friction. Describe a way in which drag and friction between solids are similar, and a way in which they differ. [2]

    3. A bungee jumper momentarily comes to rest at the bottom of the dive before he springs back upward. At that moment, is the bungee jumper in equilibrium? Explain your answer. [2]

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    #3786

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 6: Thermal Physics Part 1

    1. A student says that “when two objects are in thermal equilibrium, there will not be heat flow between the two objects and that they have the same internal energy.” Give reasons to support how far you agree with the statement above.[2]

    2. State two reasons why temperature of a body is not a measure of the quantity of the thermal energy in the body. [2]

    3. Compare the pattern of movement and speed of molecules in water and water vapour at the same temperature.[4]

    4. State what is meant by saying that a temperature is on absolute scale. [1]

    5 Explain the concept of absolute zero in the thermodynamic temperature scale? [1]

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    #3802

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 6: Thermal Physics Part 2

    6. Using a simple kinetic model for matter, explain how evaporation of sweat can help in temperature control in humans. [2]

    7. An ideal gas is kept in a sealed container in a car which suddenly increases in speed. Discuss whether the internal energy of the gas will increase. [2]

    8. Suggest why the change in the potential energy of the gas in the balloon as it rises does not change its internal energy. [2]

    9. Under what conditions does a real gas behave as an ideal gas? Explain your answer. [2]

    10. For a fixed mass of ideal gas, explain using kinetic theory of gases,
    (i) what happen to its pressure when its volume is reduced at constant temperature,
    (ii) what happens to its internal energy when temperature is raised [4]

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    #3860

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 7: Circular Motion

    1. Using a rope, a bucket of water is swung in a vertical circle of radius 0.950 m.
    The mass of the water and bucket is 3.25 kg. At the top of the circle, the speed of the bucket is 3.23 ms-1 and the bucket is upside down at this instant.
    Explain qualitatively why the water in the bucket does not fall out. [2]

    2. A small marble is projected from the ground at an initial speed of 2.5 m s – 1 at an angle of 53° above the horizontal. The same marble now slides at a speed of 2.5 m s – 1 along a horizontal surface towards a circular hump. State 2 differences between the circular motion performed by the marble as it slides over the hump and the projectile motion. [2}

    3. A stone is attached to a string. The stone rotates in a circle of radius 79 cm, with its centre at C, at constant speed in a vertical plane,
    Suggest why, in practice, it would be difficult to maintain a constant angular speed of the stone. [2]

    4. A string may snap if it is attached to an object and the object is spun around a vertical pole. Suggest an explanation for this. [2]

    5. The rider now makes the same left turn on a rough surface banked at 20o to the horizontal.
    Assuming that the frictional forces remain as 70 N, and radius of curvature is still 60 m,
    (a) Explain how the banked surface assists the rider in travelling around the corner at a higher speed. [1]
    (b) Given that the cyclist now travels at a faster speed, state and explain whether it will move up or down the road. [2]

    6 Use Newton’s laws of motion to explain why an object moving with uniform speed in a circle must experiences a force towards the centre of the circle. [2]

    7 An object, when travelling at a constant speed in a circular motion, is said to have a centripetal acceleration. Explain why there is acceleration although the speed is constant. [2]

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    #3996

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 8: Gravitational Part 1

    1. As the satellite orbits the Earth, it gradually loses energy because of air resistance. State and explain the effect of this change on the radius of the orbit and the speed of the satellite. [2]

    2. Explain what is meant by a geostationary satellite. State the conditions that must be satisfied by the satellite before it can be considered as geostationary. [2]

    3. The man is standing on a weighing scale. He finds that his weight shown on the scale is different at the equator and at the North pole. Explain why there is a difference. [2]

    4. The Moon is constantly attracted towards the Earth by gravitational attraction. Explain why it does not fall into the Earth. [2]

    5. Explain why the geostationary satellite must be above the equator? [1]

    6. Explain why acceleration of free fall at the equator is smaller than the acceleration of free fall at the pole? [1]

    7. When 2 planets revolve around a common centre, what do they have in common? [1]

    8. Under the heading Data, there is an entry
    Acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s – 2
    Compare and comment on small differences between this value, the value you obtained by using the concept gravitational force is the net force on the object and the value of 9.79 m s – 2 (which is the value obtained by making accurate measurements near the equator) [3]

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    #4174

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 8: Gravitational Part 2

    9. On the same axes below, sketch and label graphs to show the variation with distance of
    (i) gravitational potential
    (ii) gravitational field strength, g, between the Earth and the Moon [3]

    10. Explain why satellites are launched at or near the equator. [1]

    11. Many systems, such as the Global Positioning System uses several satellites in low orbits that pass over the Earth’s poles.
    Suggest two advantages of these low polar orbits and two advantages of geostationary orbits. [3]

    13 A pupil claimed that true weightlessness could be experienced at a point somewhere between the Earth and the Moon if all other planets and objects are very far away.
    Explain whether you agree with this claim. [2]

    #4252

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 9 Oscillations

    1. State and explain two features of the graph which suggests that particle P is moving in simple harmonic motion. [2]

    2. Distinguish between frequency and angular frequency for a body undergoing simple harmonic motion. [2]

    3. In normal use, the loudspeaker produces a range of frequencies of sound. Suggest why is it important that the natural frequencies of vibration of the cone of the loudspeaker is not within this range of frequencies. [3]

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    #4324

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    Mastering Qualitative Questions

    Chapter 10 Waves

    1. Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves [1]

    2. Explain why sound waves cannot be polarised while transverse wave can be polarised. [2]

    3. 3 Deduce, from the definition of speed, frequency and wavelength, the equation v = f x wavelength [1]

    4. 4 Two progressive sound waves, each of amplitude A and wavelength l, meet at a point such that their phase difference is 2pie.
    (i) Show that the ratio of the intensity of the resultant wave to the sum of the intensities of the individual waves is 2.
    (ii) Explain how the ratio in (i) is consistent with the principle of conservation of energy. [4]

    5. Explain what is meant by a progressive transverse wave. [1]

    6. State how a polarised transverse polarised transverse wave differs from an unpolarised transverse wave. [1]

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