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  • #4811

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Lesson Plan for 12th
    April 2014 JC1

    Applications of Elasticity

    I) Recap/Extension

    a) Price Elasticity of Demand

    b) Elasticity Concepts of Supply
    i. Price elasticity of supply (PES)
    1. Definition
    2. Formula
    3. Significance of values and signs
    4. Movement along supply curve
    5. Factors of PES (Definition, Graphs)
    a. Extent of spare production capacity

     Definition of spare production capacity:
     Availability of large spare production capacity enables a firm to
    increase output when there is an increase in price and demand,
    without a significant increase in costs and thus supply will be price
    elastic. An increase in price will lead to a more than proportionate
    increase in quantity supplied, ceteris paribus.
     Graphs
     Example: Fisherman with many spare boats.

    b. Level of inventories or stocks

    c. Ease and cost of factor substitution

     The greater the ease and lower the cost of factor substitution, the
    more price elastic the supply will be.
     When the price increases, producers want to increase their
    quantity supplied in order to increase their profits. Assuming that
    the production of the good is a labor-intensive one, an increase in
    the demand for labor to meet the rise in production would lead to
    a higher wage rate, which in turn increases production costs. The
    increase in production cost could reduce the extent of the
    increase in production.
     However, if the firm could substitute labor with capital, there
    could a significant increase in quantity supplied of the good in
    response to an increase in price, ceteris paribus.

    d. Time period
    i. Market Period
     One where producers cannot respond to a change in
    demand and price. All factors of production are fixed in
    supply and whatever the price, the producer is willing and
    able to offer the same amount of the good.
     The value of PES is thus zero and supply is perfectly price
    inelastic. An increase in price does not lead to any
    increase in output or quantity supplied, ceteris paribus.
     Diagram.
     Example: Fresh vegetable, fishes in the market during
    market period
    ii. Short run
     One where producers can respond slightly to a change in
    demand and price. There is at least one fixed factors of
    production, but production can increase by increasing the
    use of the variable factor.
     The value of PES is thus more than zero but less than 1.
    Supply is relatively price inelastic because of constraints
    by the fixed factor. An increase in price leads to a less
    than proportionate increase in quantity supplied, ceteris
    paribus.
     Diagram.
     Example: Fisherman hires more labor to work on his boat
    (fixed capital)
    iii. Long run
     One where producers can make all the desired resource
    adjustments. All factors of production are variable.
     The value of PES is more than 1, and price elastic. An
    increase in price will lead to a more than proportionate
    increase in quantity supplied because all factors of
    production are variable.

    e. Nature of good
     Agricultural goods and long gestation period.

    II) Application of PED to firm

    a) Pricing Decisions

     Helps the producers decide on whether to change the price for his goods
     Case 1: Price Elastic Demand
     Case 2: Price Inelastic Demand

    b) Output Decisions

     Helps the producers decide on whether to mass produce his goods.
     Case 1: Price Elastic Demand
     Case 2: Price Inelastic Demand

    c) Other strategies

     Helps producers decide on knowing whether there are many substitutes to his goods and thus decide on appropriate strategies to increase revenue.
     Case 1: Price Elastic Demand = branding, product differentiation and improving product quality
     Case 2: Price Inelastic Demand

    III) Application of PED to government

    a) To raise tax revenue
    b) To discourage consumption of socially undesirable goods

    IV) Application of YED to firm and government (Only for H2)

     For firm = what to produce, how much to produce during economic boom and bust.
     For government = planning what to produce and how much to produce on social goods.

    V) Application of XED to firm and government (Only for H2)

     For firm = Helps firms estimate the nature and closeness of the relationship between its goods and that of others. Knowledge of the concept helps firms in making the right business plans such as advertising or expansion of the firm after considering expected changes in prices of rival goods. This knowledge also helps the producers in deciding how to respond to rivals actions with appropriate product and marketing strategies

     For government = Balance of payments and imports.

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    #4870

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Topic 2.2 Macroeconomic Aims, Problems/Issues, Consequences and Policies

    Syllabus
    Monetary Policy and its Effectiveness

    Outcome
    Explain monetary policy in a broader international context where interest rates and exchange rates are alternative instruments
    Explain the external and domestic effects of changes in exchange rates and interest rates
    Evaluate the effectiveness of monetary policy in achieving macroeconomic aims.

    Macroeconomics Lecture 16 : Monetary Policy 2

    16.1 Limitations of monetary policy

    • Confidence (or lack of)

    • If interest rate is high enough, borrower and spending will be deterred. But in times of an economic boom, businesses and households are very optimistic and hence high interest rate may not deter borrowing and spending. Instead, high interest rate may cause other macroeconomic problems (e.g. rapid appreciation of the currency) and lead to conflict with other objectives of government policy.

    • On the other hand, low interest rates are not likely to be very effective as a stimulant when the economy is depressed. Borrowing and spending by firms are not likely to be encouraged when new investment offers little or no prospect of reasonable profits. When there is high unemployment, lower interest charges are not likely to lead to any significant increase in hire purchase borrowing in the markets for consumer goods.

    • Liquidity Trap

    When levels of interest rates are already very low such that any surplus money is simply channeled to idle balances. Hence interest rates also remain unchanged. With interest rates being stagnant despite the rise in money supply, investment, consumption and hence AD would also not increase.

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    #4912

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    Topic 2.2 Macroeconomic Aims, Problems/Issues, Consequences and Policies

    Syllabus
    Supply Side Policy and its Effectiveness

    Outcome
    Explain supply side policies.
    Analyse the effects of supply side policies on the economy.
    Evaluate the effectiveness of supply side policies in achieving macroeconomic aims.

    Macroeconomics Lecture 17 : Supply Side Policies

    17.1 Definition

    Supply-side policies are government policies designed to affect Aggregate Supply (AS) directly, specifically policies to reduce costs or raise productivity. They are also to minimize friction in markets and to improve information flow. It seeks to achieve economic gains by long-term measures designed to raise the rate of economic growth by shifting the long run AS curve to the right rather than manipulating AD.

    (a) Reducing Government Expenditure – Release More Resources to the Private Sector

    A more efficient use of resources within the public sector and a reduction in the size of the sector can allow private investment to increase with no overall rise in AD. Thus the supply-side benefits of higher investment could be achieved without the demand-side costs of higher inflation.

    Grants and subsidies are reduced. When subsidies are reduced, many nationalized industries will increase their prices and reduce their costs since their objective is to maximize profits. However, these policies are not without problems. In some sectors, the effect may be to cut services rather than increase efficiency. Since it may be easier to reduce long term capital expenditure (e.g. for developmental purposes) than recurrent expenditure (e.g. wages), there may be a sharp decline in new roads, schools etc.

    (b) Reducing Taxes to raise work incentive

    One way to encourage savings is to reduce personal income tax rates and shift the emphasis to taxes on consumption so that any income saved is subject to minimal income taxes.

    Supply-side advocates also claim that high taxes discourage work. Hence, to encourage people to work (thereby shifting the AS to the right), income taxes should be lowered.

    Business income is taxed firstly as the income of firms when it is earned and secondly as income of households when it is paid out as dividends. Income taxes reduce business profits and lower the return to investing in company shares. Thus, households will be discouraged from investing in businesses thus limiting the growth of firms which in turn limits economic growth.

    ! Stop and Think : How has Singapore adjusted its corporate and income tax rates over the last ten years?
    Corporate tax in Singapore has reduced from 25.5% in 2001 to 17% in 2010.
    Personal Income tax rate for those in the highest income bracket (taxable income exceeding S$320k has reduced from 22% in 2003 to 20% currently (since 2007). Even those in the lower taxable income bracket i.e. more than S$20,000, the tax rate has reduced from 4% to 2% in the same period.

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    #4935

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Lesson Plan for JC1 H1/H2 on 24th May 2014

    Market Failure Part 1

    1. Introduction and Definitions

    a) Market failure: A situation where resource allocation concerning what, how, for whom and how much to produce based on the market mechanism fails to achieve efficiency or equity among various income groups or both.

    b) Partial Market Failure: Describes a situation whereby resource allocation through market forces alone results in a level of production that is less than or more than that which is deemed socially desirable

    c) Complete Market Failure: Describes a situation whereby resource allocation through market forces alone results in zero production of the good or service.

    d) Concept Map to Link (a) to (c)

    e) Economic efficiency is achieved when society has already allocated resources in such a way that it is not possible to change the existing resource allocation to make someone better off without making someone else worse off. When economic efficiency is achieved, we say that society’s welfare has been maximized.

    f) To achieve economic efficiency, society needs to achieve allocative and productive efficiency.

    g) Allocative efficiency is achieved when the right amount of goods and
    services are produced from society’s point of view. There is no under or over production. This is achieved when a firm produces a level of output up to the point where Marginal Social Benefit (MSB) gained on the last unit by society equals to the Marginal Social Cost (MSC) of producing that last unit of output.

    In other words, MSB = MSC

    h) MSB is the total benefits to society as a result of the consumption of an additional unit of good. MSB is the summation of marginal private benefit (MPB) and marginal external benefit (MEB).

    i) MSC is the total costs to society as a result of the consumption or production of an additional unit of good. MSC is the summation of marginal private cost (MPC) and marginal external cost (MEC).

    j) Concept Map and Equation for linking (g) to (i)

    k) Demand and supply diagram to illustrate allocative efficiency.

    l) Underproduction (MSB > MSC)

    m) Overproduction (MSB < MSC)

    n) Productive efficiency is achieved when all the firms in all industries use the least-cost or best combination of inputs to produce a given level of output. At any given level of output, the average cost of production cannot be lowered any further in the long run. This implies there is no wastage of resources. In order to achieve this, a firm must produce along any point on the LRAC.

    o) Concept map to link everything.

    p) Why do markets fail?

    i. The price mechanism is based on self-interest of consumers and
    profit motive of producers.

    2. Types/Causes/Forms of Market Failures

    a) Partial Market Failure due to negative externality in production
    i. Definition of externality

    Externality is a third party effect on someone not directly involved in
    production and/or consumption of a good/service. These third parties
    are not compensated for the damages inflicted on them.

    ii. Definition of negative externality

    Negative externality is a third party cost or adverse effect on
    someone not directly involved the production and/or consumption of
    a good/service. These third parties are not compensated for the
    damages inflicted on them.

    iii. Example of negative externality

     Release of toxic materials from a factory upstream into the
    river. This results in a decrease of catch by downstream
    fisherman and hence the income of these fisherman. iv. Important Concepts for discussing negative externality
     MSC
     MPC = Costs that firm incurs in producing an additional unit of
    output. Examples include wages, rental, and cost of raw
    materials and implicit costs.
     MEC = Costs incurred by third parties and not compensated
    from an additional unit of output.
     Equation

    v. Intuitive Ideas and Story Based Discussion

     To begin with let us consider the producer side.
     In a free market without government, a producer pursues his
    self-interest of maximizing profits.
     Thus he only takes into account his private costs.
     Suppose the firm produces chemical products. The private
    cost in this case would comprise the cost of labour, raw
    materials and capital equipment for producing the chemicals.
     Next, let us move on to consumer side.
     A consumer is willing and able to pay only on the basis of the
    satisfaction he can obtain from the chemicals. This satisfaction
    is the private benefit he derives from the consumption of the
    good.
     In a free market without government, the producer will
    manufacture chemicals up to the point where his profits are
    maximized and may pollute the environment.
     The pollution will then give rise to third party costs known as
    external cost or negative externalities. The example of these
    external costs can manifest in the form of negative health
    effects and the medical bills incurred. Most importantly, these
    costs are not reflected in the financial accounting record of
    the firm.
     Thus the true cost or social cost or total cost of the production
    is underestimated.
     If the social cost is underestimated, that means from a
    society’s point of view, resource allocation alone will result in
    overproduction of the chemical.
     Overproduction violates the concept of allocative efficiency,
    and this in turn violates the concept of efficiency and thus
    causes market failure.  In short, social welfare is not maximized or there is welfare loss.

    vi. Putting everything into a graph (COPY ON ROUGH PAPER PLEASE!)
     Graph with correct labels and annotations
     Assumptions
     No positive externality
     Firms operate in perfect markets with no government intervention
     Keywords
     Divergence
     Private equilibrium
     Social Equilibrium
     Overproduction
     Allocative inefficiency
     Total deadweight loss
     Market Failure

    vii. Government Policies to correct negative externalities
     Taxes
     Policy Statement = Government could impose a tax on
    production that is equal to the marginal external cost at
    the last unit of output determined by MPB = MPC.
     Impact on graphs
     Analysis Keyword = internalize the external cost
     Examples = Road taxes pegged to engine capacity to
    encourage the use of fuel efficient vehicles.
     Merits and Limitations
     Market forces are allowed to operate and consumer
    sovereignty is protected
     Incentive to reduce pollution
     Incidence of tax and price elasticity
     Production levels and price elasticity
     Lack of knowledge on damages from pollution
     Manpower costs to assess collect and enforce the tax.

    TO BE CONTUNUED NEXT LESSON!
     Rules and Regulation
     Tradeable Pollution Permits

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    #4994

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Date : 3 July 2014

    Topic 2.2 Macroeconomic Aims, Problems/Issues, Consequences and Policies

    Syllabus

    Macroeconomic Problems and their Causes
    • Undesirable rates of economic growth
    • High inflation rate
    • High unemployment rate
    • Persistent or large balance of payments deficit

    Outcome
    • Explain the meaning of undesirable rates of economic growth, high inflation rate, high unemployment rate and persistent or large balance of payments deficit.
    • Analyse the causes and consequence of macroeconomic problems.

    Macroeconomics Lecture 1 : Undesirable Rates of Economic Growth

    1.1 Recap : Economic Growth

    Economic Growth is the increase in an economy’s level of real output over time.

    Rate of Economic Growth is the percentage increase in national output over a 12-month period.

    Aim of governments : High and sustained rates of economic growth.

    Reason : To advance the standard of living of the people.

    4.2 Recap : Actual Growth Vs Potential Growth

    Actual economic growth is the annual percentage increase in national output i.e. the rate of growth in actual output. Published statistics on growth rates (such as that in Table 1) are examples of actual economic growth.

    Potential economic growth is the speed at which the economy could grow. It is the annual percentage increase in the capacity (potential) of the economy to produce or develop i.e. the rate of growth in potential output.

    Potential economic growth may be achieved by :

    • Increase in the quantity of available resources such as labour, land, capital and entrepreneurship.

    • Improvement in the quality of the available resources.

    Actual and Potential Growth may be illustrated by 2 models :
    • PPC
    • AD/AS

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    #5138

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Microeconomics Revision 2 : Demand, Supply and the Market Part 1

    Syllabus Content :
    • The individual and market demand curves as representations of intentions to consume.
    • The firm and market supply curves as representations of intentions to consume.
    • Changes in demand and supply.
    • Shifts vs movements in demand and supply.
    • Equilibrium price and quantity

    Learning Outcome :
    • Explain that demand reflects consumers’ satisfaction and recognize the inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded.
    • Explain that supply reflects opportunity costs and recognize the direct relationship between price and quantity supplied.
    • Discuss the factors affecting demand and supply and the implications of the ceteris paribus condition.
    • Differentiate between shift and movements along the demand and supply curves.
    • Explain the determination of market equilibrium price and quantity through the interaction of demand and supply.
    • Analyse the effects of changes in demand and supply on equilibrium price and output.

    Content Quiz :

    1. List the main influences on demand for a good.
    2. List the main influences on supply of a good.
    3. Define demand.
    Demand is a relationship indicating the quantity of a well-defined good (or service) that consumers are both willing and able to buy at each possible price during a given period of time, ceteris paribus. It is sometimes known as Effective Demand, or a desire backed by purchasing power.
    4. Define supply.
    Supply is a relationship indicating the quantity of a well-defined good (or service) that producers are both willing and able to put up for sale at each possible price during a given period of time, ceteris paribus.
    5. What does the law of demand say?
    The law of demand states that in a given time period, the quantity demanded of a good (or service) is inversely related to its price, ceteris paribus.
    6. Why do consumers demand less of a good when its price increases?
    Consumers demand less of a good (or service) when price increases because of 2 reasons :

    • People will feel poorer. They will not be able to afford to buy so much of the good with their money. The purchasing power of their income has fallen. This is called the income effect of a price rise.
    • The good will now be more expensive relative to other goods. People will thus switch to alternative or “substitute” goods. This is called the substitution effect of a price rise.

    7. What does the law of supply say?
    The law of supply states that in a given time period, the quantity supplied of a good (or service) is directly related to its price, ceteris paribus.

    8. Why do suppliers supply more of a good when its price increases?
    Producers/Firms supply more of a good (or service) when price increases because of 3 reasons :

    • As firms supply more, they are likely to find that beyond a certain level of output, costs rise more and more rapidly. Only if the price rises will it be worth producing more and incurring these higher costs.
    • The higher the price of the good, the more profitable it becomes to produce. Firms will thus be encouraged to produce more of it by switching from the production of less profitable goods.
    • Given time, if the price of a good remains high, new producers will be encouraged to set up in production assuming there are no barriers to entry. Total market supply thus rises.

    9. What is the link between individual demand/supply and market demand/supply?
    Horizontal summation
    10. What is the difference between change in quantity demanded/supplied and change in demand/supply? Draw diagrams to illustrate.

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    #5450

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    General Tips for Writing Essay on “Which Goal is the most important?”

    I) Framework = S + C + C

    A) S = Severity of the problem
    You need to write on two things:
    i) Which goal is currently in the biggest trouble?
    ii) What are the negative consequences if left unresolved? OR What
    are the benefits of resolving the problem and achieving that goal?

    B) C = Conflict with other goals
    You need to write on one thing:
    i) How does focusing on goal X lead to conflict with goal Y?

    C) C = Characteristics/Conditions a country faces
    You need to write on one thing:
    i) How does focusing on goal X lead to achievement of goal Y?

    Please contact Angie Hp 96790479 or Mr Ong 98639633 if you need help in Economics and complete Notes

    #5568

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    J1 H2 SAT 7.30pm – 9.30pm

    J1 H1 SAT 7.30pm – 9.30pm

    J2 H2 SAT 9am – 11am

    J2 H2 SAT 5.30pm – 7.30pm

    J2 H1 SAT 5.30pm – 7.30pm

    J2 H2 SUN 9am – 11am

    J2 H1 SUN 9am – 11am

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    #5675

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Guided Revision Test + Notes

    Contents = Circular Flow of Income, PMI-ADAS-K, FP, MP and SSP

    Section 1: Explanation Recall/Definitions

    1) Explain briefly without definitions how each of the following factors affect
    consumption
    I) Government providing subsidies for parents on child care
    II) Economic boom
    III) Central bank increases interest rates
    IV) Expectation of future inflation

    2) Construct (USING PENCIL) the crude mechanism for the transmission of
    Expansionary Fiscal Policy during a recession and a period of rising unemployment. In your diagram, indicate the limitations the policy may potentially face.

    3) Construct (USING PENCIL) the crude mechanism for the transmission of Expansionary Monetary Policy during a recession and a period of rising unemployment. In your diagram, indicate the limitations the policy may potentially face.

    4) In the balance of payments, if the sum of ________ items exceeds ______ items, the total currency inflow will exceed outflow, resulting in balance of payments _________.

    5) In the balance of payments, if the sum of __________ items exceeds _______ items, the total currency outflow will exceed inflow, resulting in balance of payments _________.

    6) Define circular flow of income and provide a diagram.

    The circular flow of income illustrates the flow of ________ from households to
    firms in return for the ________ that firms supply and the flow of __________ from firms to households in return for the _________ services that households supply.

    Changes in circular flow of income are triggered by changes in injections and withdrawals. Injections are _________ to the circular flow of income which does not come from the expenditure of __________ _____________. Injections are ______________________________, _______________ ______________ and __________ ____________.

    Withdrawals are any part of income that is not passed on within the circular flow of income.

    Withdrawals include ___________, _____________ and ____________.

    Diagram =

    7) Further elaborate on the diagram circular flow of income. [Needed for all essays on circular flow]

    Households supply their _________ of production in return for payments in the form of rent for land, ________ for labor, interests for ______ and _______ for their entrepreneurship. In addition, households also pay for goods and services produced by firms in the form of __________ expenditure. Households also receive help from __________ in the form of G, save some of the ________ they earn (S), pay ______ to the government and spend some on __________ goods (M).
    Firms supply goods and services to households in return for household __________, which also become the _________ receipt for firms. Firms may also earn ______________ from selling exports to foreigners, or invest in new machinery in the form of __________ expenditure (I), receive subsidies from ____________ (G) and pay _______ (T) to government.In an economy, the equilibrium national income is achieved when the sum of ___________ from the circular flow of income is equal to the sum of ____________
    into the circular flow of income. The mathematical expression for this is ___________________ = _______________.

    8) Explain briefly what happens to circular flow of income of Singapore during a global financial crisis

    P: The size of the circular flow of income will __________.

    E/E: During a global financial crisis, there is a fall in global household income, causing the level of injections such as I and X to fall, thus Singapore’s national income is no longer in equilibrium because ___________________ > _________________.

    The level of investment expenditure fell due to ___________ outlook by firms as
    lower profitability of investment projects is expected during the global recession. In addition, banks are unwilling to lend during the financial crisis for fear of high ________ risks. Thus firms are unable to finance their investment projects, leading to fall in I.

    The global recession leads to lower income and lower purchasing power for foreign households. Thus, the demand for Singapore’s exports fall, resulting in lower _______ __________ for the country.

    During an economic recession, the Singapore government is likely to conduct an _____________ fiscal policy so that G will _________ .

    However, the fall in I and X will more than offset the _________ in G. This is due to Singapore’s high trade dependence whereby X-M amounted to _______ of
    Singapore’s GDP.

    With the overall fall in injections, the firms output will decrease. The _______ demand for factors of production from _________ will decrease and according to the circular flow of income model, the __________ ___________ flowing back to households will _________, resulting in a fall in the size of the circular flow of income. With a lower income and purchasing power, households will cut ____________ __________ accordingly. At the same time, households will also _______ less, pay less __________ and spend less on _______ goods. The size of __________ will also fall.

    With the fall in ____________ _____________ by households, firms will again
    respond by decreasing _________. The process repeats and stops when the _______
    fall in ________ is equal to the total fall in ____________.

    L: Eventually the size of the circular flow of income decreases.

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    #6767

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Test on Scarcity, Choice and Opportunity Cost
    Notes on Demand, Supply and Price Mechanism

    Section 1: Definitions (Improves ability to write introduction for essay questions)

    a) Define scarcity
    Scarcity arises because of __________ __________ and __________ wants. ___________ are ___________ because the world has a finite amount of them. __________ wants refer to the desire for ever higher levels of ____________ once a particular level of demand is met

    b) Define choice
    Choice refers to the act of _________ among ____________ and it involves sacrifices known as _________________ ____________. In making choices, the four most fundamental problems an economy must resolve are:

    i. _________ to produce
    ii. __________ ____________ to produce
    iii. __________ to produce
    iv. ________ _________ to produce

    c) Production possibility curve is a curve which shows all the possible _____________ of two goods that a country can produce within a specified period of time with all its resources fully and __________ employed and at a given state of __________.

    d) Define opportunity cost
    Opportunity cost of any action refers to the next best ___________ foregone. It represents the real cost of that activity

    e) A movement onto a PPC is due to an economy recovering from a ____________

    f) An outward shift of PPC away from the origin is due to any of these:
    i. Improvement in _________ of ____________
    ii. Increase in ___________ of __________
    iii. Improvement in ______________ of _____________
    iv. Free __________ according to comparative advantage.

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    #6798

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    Surprise Test: Demand and Supply

    Notes: Factors affecting Demand, Supply and Price Mechanism

    Section 1: Simple Recall/Definitions Questions

    a) State the four types of factors essential for every production process

    b) State other interchangeable words for factors of production

    c) Define demand
    Demand refers to the quantities of a product that buyers are __________ and _________ to buy at various prices per period of time, _________ paribus

    d) State the law of demand
    The law of demand states that ceteris paribus, the ________ the price of a good, the lower the quantity demanded of a good. This implies an ___________ relationship between the price and quantity demanded for a good.

    e) Define supply
    Supply refers to the quantities of a product that sellers are _____________ and
    _____________ to produce at various prices per period of time, ___________ paribus.

    f) State the law of supply
    The law of supply states that ceteris paribus, the higher the price of a good, the greater the quantity supplied of the good. This implies a _____________ relationship between price and quantity supplied of a good.

    g) Define complements and state 2 examples

    h) Define complementary demand

    i) Define substitutes and state 2 examples

    j) Define competitive demand

    k) State 3 determinants of demand

    l) State 3 determinants of supply

    m) State how equilibrium prices are determined in a free market

    Please contact Angie Hp 96790479 or Mr Ong 98639633 if you need help in Economics and complete Notes and Test questions.

    #6854

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Surprise Test: Demand, Supply and Price Mechanism

    Notes: Government Intervention

    Section A: Simple Recall/Definitions

    a) Define choice
    Choice refers to the act of _________ among ____________ and it involves sacrifices
    known as _________________ ____________. In making choices, the four most
    fundamental problems an economy must resolve are:

    i. _________ to produce

    ii. __________ ____________ to produce

    iii. __________ to produce

    iv. __________ _____________ to produce

    b) Define demand
    Demand refers to the quantities of a product that buyers are __________ and _________ to buy at various prices per period of time, _________ paribus

    c) Define Supply
    Supply refers to the quantities of a product that sellers are _____________ and
    _____________ to produce at various prices per period of time, ___________ paribus.

    d) State 5 determinants of demand

    e) State 5 determinants of supply

    f) Define complements and substitutes
    Complements refer to two goods that must be __________ ___________ to satisfy the same want.
    Substitutes refer to two goods that __________ with each other to satisfy the same want.

    Please contact Angie Hp 96790479 or Mr Ong 98639633 if you need help in Economics and complete Notes and Test questions.

    #7097

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    JC1 Promo Exams and JC2 Prelim Exams Preparatory Classes

    for Economics.

    Open for Registration Now!

    Call Angie @96790479 or Mr Ong @98639633

    #7528

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Hi All A-Level Economics Tuition Students

    Macroeconomics Revision 4 : Trade and Globalisation

    Syllabus :
    Free Trade and its Benefits
    Free Trade and barriers to trade
    Globalisation and its impact

    Outcome :
    Explain the basis for trade using the concept of opportunity cost.
    Explain the benefits of free trade.
    Explain why protectionism exists
    Examine the impact of globalization on the Singapore economy
    Explain the trend towards globalization and discuss how economic globalization impacts on trade in goods and services and foreign direct investment with respect to the Singapore economy

    1. Define Trade

    2. List the reasons for trade.

    3. List the benefits of trade

    4. What are the disadvantages of trade?

    5. Why does protectionism exist?

    Please contact Angie @ 96790470 if you need help in Economics

    #7643

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    A-Level Economics Tuition Singapore/H2/H1 Economics Tuition

    Essay

    The price of organic fertilizers for organic crops has been rising. Rising income and healthy living campaigns are encouraging households to switch to consuming organic food.

    With reference to the above events, assess the relevance of different concepts of elasticities of demand in explaining the effects on expenditure by consumers on organic and non-organic food. [25]

    Suggested formats

    Introduction
    Focus: Discuss the relevance of PED, YED & XED in affecting CE in each market given a rise in the price of organic fertilizers, a rise in income and healthy living campaigns.

    Key Definitions:

    -Consumer expenditure (CE): Total amount of money that consumers spend on a product.[CE = P x Q]
    -PED: Measures the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in the price of the good itself, ceteris paribus.
    -YED: Measures the degree of responsiveness of demand of a good given a change in income, ceteris paribus.
    -XED: Measures the degree of responsiveness of demand of a good to a change in the price of another good B (substitutes / complements), ceteris paribus.

    Please contact Mr Ong @ 98639633 if you need the complete model essay

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