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  • #2982

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 3.30 – 5.30pm 6/4/2013
    We completed enzymes assignment 2 and started on DNA and genomics. Lecture on the first part ended at page 9 and we will resume with teaching from page 10 onwards next week.

    J2 Biology Class 5.30 – 7.30pm 6/4/2013
    We completed evolution assignment 1 today and the class was released 5 minutes early. Assignment 2 will be done by next week and in the following week we will begin a new topic on DNA Cloning.

    IMPORTANT PIECE OF NEWS
    File Check will be done near May when we complete most of our syllabus.

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #2995

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 3.30 – 5.30pm 13/4/2013
    We continued with out lecture on DNA and genomics and ended the class with the termination of DNA replication. Next week, we shall revisit the last part on telomere formation and also move on to transcription and translation! The class was instructed to attempt 4 questions as homework.

    J2 Biology Class 5.30 – 7.30pm 13/4/2013
    We completed Part I of the chapter on DNA cloning (except the last part about expression systems) We will visit that next week and move on to explore Gel electrophoresis and Polymerase chain reaction. Here’s a summary of what we learned today! : http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cloning/cloning.htm

    IMPORTANT PIECE OF NEWS
    File Check will be done near May when we complete most of our syllabus.
    Progress Tracking Form (handed out today) is to be filled and returned next Saturday).

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3054

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    J1 Biology Class 3.30 – 5.30pm 27/4/2013
    We spent a big part of the lesson clearing our doubts over the chapter on DNA and Genomics, and then moved on to cover the first three pages of DNA mutation. Next week we will finish up the notes on mutation and also go through the DNA and genomics assignments. We will begin a new chapter on Cell Division on 11 May 2013. So do bring your friends down on that day if they would like to join the class!

    J2 Biology Class 5.30 – 7.30pm 27/4/2013
    We went through Cloning MCQ today as well as the first 2 questions of Assignment 1, stopping at the question on tandem repeats. We also took some time to go through how RFLP analysis works in the detection of diseased individuals and its inheritance. Next week we will continue with assignment 1 and move on to assignment 2. I have also handed out the A level 2011 paper today, to be done in two weeks’ time.

    IMPORTANT PIECE OF NEWS
    File Check will be done near May when we complete most of our syllabus.
    Some people still owe me the Progress Tracking Form!!!

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3089

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 3.30 – 5.30pm 4/5/2013
    We will go through DNA and genomics assignment next week. This week we did Cell Division – Mitosis 🙂

    J2 Biology Class 5.30 – 7.30pm 4/5/2013
    We finished going through ICSD assignment 1, and the first question of ICSD assignment 2. Next week we would continue and finish up assignment 2. Thereafter, we move on to going through evolution assignment 2. I have given out the notes on Gene Therapy and Stemp Cells. (And I owe Silin a copy because she’s absent this week).

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3141

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 3.30 – 5.30pm 18/5/2013
    We went through the DNA and Genomics assignments (both) today and finished the theory of the entire Cell division chapter. Cell division has been handed up to me, which we will go through next week, and cell division 2 is to be submitted next week. 🙂

    J2 Biology Class 5.30 – 7.30pm 18/5/2013
    We used the 2hours today to finish evolution assignment 2 corrections, learning the answering techniques along the way. I have given out the notes on Gene Therapy and Stem Cells. (And I owe Silin a copy as she was absent) We will commence on Gene Therapy and Stem Cells this coming Friday, 24/5, 11am – 1pm.

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3159

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 25/5/2013
    Cell Division is completed and we are moving on to Genetics of Viruses next week!

    J2 Biology Class 25/5/2013
    We completed teaching Gene Therapy and Stem Cells today and next week we will go through Assignment 2 for this chapter. Subsequently we will complete assignment 1, and then move on to Plant Cloning and GMOs, the last topic of our syllabus.
    Coming July, we will start to work on Essay writing. 🙂

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3186

    Diana Goh
    Participant

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    J1 Biology Class 22/6/2013
    Genetics of Viruses is almost complete, we have just one or two structured questions left from assignment 2 and we will move on to Genetics of Bacteria next week!

    J2 Biology Class 22/6/2013
    We completed teaching Plant Cloning and GMOs. Next week we will do assignment 2. Then comes our essay drill.

    Cheers!
    Ms Goh

    #3342

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    Key notes on Lipids and carbohydrate

    1. Lipids
    a. Kinks and melting temperature
    The presence of double bonds results in the introduction of kinks in the fatty acid tails of triglycerides.

    These kinks result from the differing bond geometry between a C-C bond and a C=C bond (again, you will eventually learn this in Chemistry). The presence of kinks in the fatty acid tails prevents the close packing of triglycerides.

    When the triglycerides are less closely packed, hydrophobic interactions are formed to a smaller extent. Hence, less thermal energy is required to break enough of these interactions to liquefy the triglycerides.
    The above points also hold true for the fatty acid tails found in phospholipids.

    2. Carbohydrates
    a. Aldo and keto sugars

    All sugars possess a carbonyl group (C=O); the position of the C=O group along the carbon skeleton of the sugar determines whether the sugar
    is an aldose sugar or a keto sugar.

    Aldose sugars have a terminal carbonyl group (i.e.the C=O involves the first C in the chain).

    Ketose sugars have their C=O group at other positions along the chain.

    b. Ring structures
    Cyclization of sugars (i.e. conversion from the straight-chain form to the ring form) occurs when a bond is formed between the carbon with the carbonyl group and another carbon in the chain.

    Refer to
    http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/carbohydrates/glucose.swf for animation on how this occurs.

    The α-form of the ring structure is defined as the –OH attached to the anomeric carbon being on the opposite side of the ring as the sixth carbon. For most sugars, this is reflected by the –OH projecting downwards, below the plane of the ring.

    The β-form of the ring structure is defined as the -OH attached to the anomeric carbon being on the same side of the ring as the sixth carbon. For most sugars, this is reflected by the –OH projecting upwards, above the plane of the ring.

    c. Anomeric carbon
    Anomeric carbon is defined as the carbon in the ring structure that has both an ether oxygen and an alcohol group attached to it; more simply put, the anomeric carbon is the only carbon atom in the ring that forms bonds to two oxygen atoms.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3357

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    Respiration Lesson 1 Feedback

    1. Highlight the different phrasing between Biology & Chemistry

    I’m not sure if I have captured all, but I think the difference is mainly between the phrasing used to describe biological molecules:
    e.g. “peptide bond” in Bio VS “amide bond” in Chem
    e.g. “hydrophobic interactions” in Bio VS “van der Waals interactions” in Chem
    e.g. “exergonic / endergonic” in Bio VS “exothermic / endothermic” in Chem

    If you encounter any more different phrasings in the 2 subjects, please check with me.

    2. How is the addition of Pi done and where is the Pi obtained from?

    Addition of Pi is done by an enzyme (you do not need to know its’ name). The Pi is either dissolved in the cell cytosol (it is an anion, PO43-), or found in phosphate granules in the mitochondrion / chloroplast, which are large aggregations of phosphate.

    3. Since fructose 6 phosphate is a symmetrical sugar, how come 2 different sugars (DHAP and G3P) are obtained?

    F6P is actually not fully symmetrical; that is a simplistic way of looking at things.
    The 2 sugars produced are isomers of each other and are readily interconvertible.
    As G3P is constantly used up, by Le Chatelier’s principle the position of
    equilibrium of the isomerization reaction shifts in favour of G3P. Hence, you can simplify the idea by saying that cleavage of F6P results in 2 molecules of G3P.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3395

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Step 1:
    Identify key words for every topic and associate them into logical groups.

    Step 2:
    Answer the following questions in point form to practice recall. Answer from your mind, do not copy from the notes.

    Topic 1 – Cellular Functions

    1. Discuss the structure and function of the following: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, chloroplasts, cell surface membrane, nuclear envelope, centrioles, nucleus and nucleolus.

    2. Describe the formation and breakage of a glycosidic bond.

    3. Describe the molecular structure of a triglyceride and a phospholipid, and relate these structures to their functions in living organisms.

    4. Describe the structure of an amino acid.

    5. Describe the formation and breakage of a peptide bond.

    6. Explain the meaning of the terms primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure of proteins.

    7. Describe the types of bonding (hydrogen, ionic, disulfide and hydrophobic interactions) which hold the protein molecule in shape.

    8. Contrast the molecular structure of a protein with a quaternary structure e.g. haemoglobin, as an example of a globular protein, against that of collagen as an example of a fibrous protein,

    9. Relate the structures of haemoglobin and collagen to their functions.

    10. Explain the mode of action of enzymes.

    11. Explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reactions.

    12. Explain the effects of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors (including allosteric inhibitors) on the rate of enzyme activity.

    13. Explain the importance of mitosis in growth, repair and asexual reproduction.

    14. Explain the need for the production of genetically identical cells.

    15. Explain how uncontrolled cell division can result in cancer

    16. Discuss causative factors (e.g.genetic, chemical carcinogens, radiation, loss of immunity) which can increase the chances of cancerous growth.

    17. Describe with the aid of diagrams, the behaviour of chromosomes during the mitotic cell cycle and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope, cell membrane and centrioles.

    18. Explain what is meant by homologous pairs of chromosomes.

    19. Explain the need for meiosis in sexual reproduction.

    20. Explain how meiosis and random fertilisation can lead to variation.

    21. Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis, and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope, cell membrane and centrioles.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3411

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Topic 2 – DNA and Genomics

    1. Describe the structure and roles of DNA and RNA.

    2. Describe the process of DNA Replication.

    3. Discuss the experimental evidence for semi-conservative replication.

    4. Describe how information on DNA is used to synthesise polypeptides.

    5. Using a specific example, explain how a gene mutation can lead to a non-functional protein.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3454

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Topic 3 – Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria

    1. Discuss whether viruses are living or non-living organisms

    2. Explain why viruses are obligate parasites.

    3. Describe, with examples, the structural components of viruses.

    4. Describe, with a named example, the reproductive cycle of bacteriophages that reproduce via a lytic cycle.

    5. Describe, with a named example, the reproductive cycle of bacteriophages that reproduce via a lysogenic cycle.

    6. Describe, with a named example, the reproductive cycle of an enveloped virus.

    7. Describe, with a named example, the reproductive cycle of a retrovirus.

    8. Explain how viral infections cause disease in animals through the disruption of host tissue and functions.

    9. Describe the structure of a bacterial chromosome including the arrangement of DNA within bacterial cells.

    10. Describe the process of binary fission, transformation, transduction and conjugation in bacteria

    11. Explain the role of F plasmids in bacterial conjugation.

    12. Distinguish between structural and regulatory genes.

    13. Distinguish, using named examples, between the concept of repressible and inducible systems of gene regulation

    16. Describe the concept of a simple operon using lac operon as an example.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3498

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Topic 4 – Organisation and Control of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Genomes

    1. Compare the structure and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes.

    2. Describe the structure and function of the portions of eukaryotic DNA that do not encode for protein or RNA

    3. Describe the role of telomeres and centromeres

    4. Describe the process and significance of gene amplification within cells

    5. Describe eukaryotic processing of mRNA.

    6. Define control elements and explain how control elements (e.g. promoter, silencer and enhancers) and other factors (e.g. transcription factors, repressors, histone modification and DNA methylation) influence transcription.

    7. Discuss the control of gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels.

    8. Contrast prokaryotic control of gene expression against eukaryotic control.

    9. Describe, using named examples, the functions of proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.

    10. Explain how loss of function and gain of function mutations can contribute to cancer

    11. Discuss the development of cancer as a multi-step process.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3538

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Topic 5 – Genetic Basis for Variation

    1. Explain the following terms: locus, allele, dominant, recessive, codominant, homozygous,heterozygous, phenotype and genotype.

    2. Explain how genotype is linked to phenotype.

    3. Explain how genes are inherited from one generation to the next via the germ cells or gametes.

    4. Explain, with examples, how the environment may affect the phenotype.

    5. Explain the following terms: monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, sex linkage, autosomal linkage, epistasis, codominance, test cross and multiple alleles.

    6. Explain the meaning of the terms linkage

    7. Explain the effect of linkage and crossing-over on the phenotypic ratios from dihybrid crosses.

    8. Explain what is meant by the terms gene mutation and chromosome aberration.

    9. Describe the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation

    10. Explain the genetic basis of continuous variation and discontinuous variation.

    11. Describe the causes of genetic variation in a population.

    12. Describe, using named examples, how epistatic interactions occur at the biochemical level.

    13. Describe the use the chi square test

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

    #3563

    admin
    Member

    A-Level Biology Tuition Singapore/H2 Biology Tuition/JC Biology Tutor

    REVISING H2 Biology FOR ‘A’ LEVELS IN 3 STEPS

    Topic 6 – Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry

    1. Explain the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis

    2. Describe the three phases of the Calvin cycle

    3. Discuss how limiting factors may affect the rate of photosynthesis

    4. Describe each of the main stages of aerobic respiration.

    5. Explain the production of a small yield of ATP from anaerobic respiration

    6. Describe the formation of ethanol in yeast and lactate in mammals.

    7. Compare the storage and structural forms of starch, glycogen and cellulose

    8. Describe the roles of starch, glycogen and cellulose in plants/animals.

    9. Describe and explain the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.

    10. Outline the roles and functions of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells.

    11. Describe how substances may move across the cell membrane.

    12. Explain the principles of homeostasis.

    13. Explain the need for communication systems within organisms.

    14. Describe and explain the transmission of an action potential along a myelinated neurone.

    15. Describe the structure of a cholinergic synapse and explain how it functions.

    16. Explain what is meant by an endocrine gland, using the islets of Langerhans in the
    pancreas as an example.

    17. Explain how the blood glucose concentration is regulated by insulin and glucagon.

    18. Describe the main stages of cell signalling

    19. Explain the advantages of a cell signalling system.

    For exam based questions and solutions, please contact Hp @9863 9633

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